Ikhsanudin Ikhsanudin Author
Title: The Analysis Variation Usage of Address Form “Ayuk” in Jambi Language
Author: Ikhsanudin
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I. INTRODUCTION People use language not only to communicate each other by expressing their feeling and thought, but also at the same time us...
I. INTRODUCTION
People use language not only to communicate each other by expressing their feeling and thought, but also at the same time using language to define their relationship each other, to identify themselves as part of social group, and to establish the kind of speech event they are in (Fasold, 1990).


In communication process people have different attitudes and utterances in addressing someone. People have varied rule and form to call someone while they interact each other. The differences can be viewed based on the social status, sex, age, even the degree of intimacy. In sociolinguistics focus, the term of address form is well-known. It refers to the word used by speaker to designate the person they are talking to while they are talking to them (Fasold, 1990). For example, the older woman that has born us called “mother”; in Indonesia teacher in class called “Pak guru” or “Bu guru”; in English country the teacher will be called using “ title + name”, etc.
It has been noted, the using of address form is varied according to the contexts. Each ethnic group has their own collection of word in address other people in interaction. The reasons for people using a form to address other people are also varied based on their own version.
In Jambi, the word “ayuk” or shortened for “yuk” is very common used to address an older woman or sister. Basically, it is uttered by the younger to the woman who is older in age. This woman can be from the family members (such older sister) or outside the family circle. But, the using of the word “ayuk” now is changing to a wider range. In some cases, it is also utters by older people to the younger, parent to their daughter. This phenomenon is very interested to observe. It’s interesting to know how and why such phenomenon occurs in social interactions.

II. METHODOLOGY TO ANALYZE
The data for this research is collected through interview and direct observation in researcher environment.
The data collected in this research is taken from the daily conversation where the researcher takes a part in it. The analysis will focus to the usage of address form “ayuk” in daily conversations.
The method used to analyze this research is called descriptive method. This research will be analyzed based on the observation and the available data. The aim of using the descriptive method is to describe the information based on the variable observed in the research (Bagda & Taylor dalam Maleong, 1991).

III. ANALYSIS DATA
Data (1)
Gita : Assalamu’alaikum…
Researcher : wa’alaikumsalam, cemano dah siap? (How is it, have you ready?)
G : sudah! Pinjam yo yuk motornyo. Oyo, ni helm ayuk maren kami baleki. Makasi yo yuk. (yes I have! I borrow your ride sister. Oh yeah, this is your helmet I borrowed yesterday. Thank you.)
Researcher : Iyo, samo-samo! Itu kuncinyo di atas TiVi. (You’re Welcome! The key is on the TV).
G : Ohh..ini, pinjam dulu yuk yo motornyo. (ohh.. I see. oK I bring your ride, sister)
Researcher : Yop, hati-hati di jalan yo. (Yop, take care.)
(The data taken from daily interaction on 20th of January 2009)

Data (2)
Researcher : Cemano mak, masih sakit perutnyo? (mom, how are you? Is your stomach still getting sick?)
Mom : Iyo la yuk, dikit. Jam berapo ayuk sampe rumah maren? ( yes, it’s litlte bit sick. What time did you arrive at home yesterday?)
R : Jam 2. 30 an la. Mobilnyo lambat. Aturan 1.30 lah sampe (2. 30 o’clock because the car ran slowly. I should be arrived at 1.30)
M : dak capek ayuk? Mamak bilang kan dak usah balek dulu? Tunggu be kabar. ( are you tired? I think you don’t need to go home. Just wait for the information at first)
(The data taken from daily interaction On 4th of January 2009)

Data (3)
R : Bulek… ndi Rahmat e..? koq ra ketok. (aunt…where’s Rahmat? I don’t see him)
Bulek : lagi bobok yuk, tadi rewel wae de’e. wis mangan tak mande ni, meneng, plok, tidur..(he is sleeping now, he kept crying this day. After having a lunch, he takes a bath and then fall asleep)
R : oo.. pantes! Biasa ne khan de’e dolan. Koq saiki ra ketok, sepi wae. (oo..I see! He usually walks around this path, but now he didn’t. it’s so quiet)
B : iyo, lagi ngantuk de’e. Ayuk ra pasar? (you right, he was very sleepy. Don’t you go to the market now?)
R : Ra. Masih podo akeh cabe, bawang merah, minyak barang. Cukupla tuk besok-besok. (No. I still have a plenty of chili, onions, oil. It will be enough for tomorrow)
(The Data taken from daily interaction On 4th of January 2009)

In data (1), the conversation occurs in researcher house where Gita is researcher’s neighbour and they have no family relationship. In the conversation, Gita called researcher “ayuk”. In this case, Gita is younger than researcher. So, as explained before, Gita’s attitude describes her respect to the older people that is researcher.
In conversation (2) the talk occurs between researcher and mom. It is clear that they have family relationship i.e. between parents and children. It is also clear that mom of course is older and has more power (in term of for example, mom can handle their children, etc) than researcher. Looking back to the data (2), there is something unusual here. Mom addresses her daughter (researcher) with “ayuk” which normally is refers to older woman.
Based on the data taken from the interview, there are some reasons why mom behaves such attitudes. First, mom wants her little boy (researcher’s little brother) to do the same thing like her. In this case mom give example to the little boy how she calls his older sister. Mom does not want his son calls her sister using her name only, based on many cultures in Indonesia it is impolite. Mom believes the little children will imitate what the adult has done. This example occurs in most of researcher’s society and it’s actually also happened to the older son where in family they called with word “abang” (jambiness), “mamas” (javaness), etc for this purpose.
Secondly, mom has felt more comfortable and closer when call “ayuk” to the researcher than when she uses her daughter’s name “Retni”. It sounds smoother and better to hear. In researcher point of view as a direct object in the research, the using of address form “ayuk” is better than calling her name directly. Sometimes, researcher will feel uncomfortable when mom or dad uses her name only to address. For researcher, it indicates mom and dad in anger situation to her. In fact, mom never utters “ayuk” to researcher when she was angry.
In data (3), “Bulek” in here is also the researcher neighbor. She is older than the researcher and has married. Bulek is originally Javanese but she has lived in Jambi for along time. In this particular case, Bulek uses “ayuk” to address researcher. This choice also based on some reasons. First, Bulek does not know what’s the researcher’s name exactly (she has just moved to the researcher house area), so she used the general utterance pronounce by related person in that area to address researchers. Secondly, bulek wants to be more polite in her talk. Using direct name is heard less polite. The same with mom, Bulek feel more comfortable and seems to be more polite to address the researcher using “ayuk”.
The third, the background of the speaker above also influence her attitude in addressing researcher. The speaker here is a Javanese. In Javanese culture there some expression words such as “ungga-unggu” (politeness way) and “welas asih” (love and respect) to the younger. Even thought the speaker is older than the addressee, but based on her culture habitual she still need to show her politeness and respect to the addressee.

IV. CONCLUSION
People generally talk differently to children and to adults. So does younger to the older. It is needed to have appropriate address forms. Young person will not address elderly person with his first name because it’s impolite and they will be judged in term of “kurang ajar” (under-taught). In contrary the elderly person can address the younger wit their first name only, but in some cases, this can be different. These differences are influenced by many factors in social context such as status, age, culture background, habitual factor, etc.
It is important to consider the situation and context in addressing someone. Inappropriate addressing will affect to the misunderstanding and will hurt other people feeling in some situation. Even parent and elderly people still show their politeness and love to the younger in using addressing form. These forms of address have been found in a large community. Their reason also may vary than we considered and it will require more research to do and to be analyzed.


References

Badiah, Nurul. 2007. The changes of Address Form Used by Young People in Arab Melayu. UNJA
Fasold, Ralph. 1990. Sociolinguistics. Oxford and Cambridge,
Miftah. 2007. Address Term Used among Family Members At Terusan Village. UNJA.
Trudgill, Peter. 1995. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction to Language and Society. Penguin Books.



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