Ikhsanudin Ikhsanudin Author
Title: THE STUDY OF CODE MIXING AMONG JAVANESE PEOPLE IN SEI BAHAR 1
Author: Ikhsanudin
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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. The Background Indonesia has been known for its culture and traditions. Having thousands of islands inhabited by...
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1. The Background
Indonesia has been known for its culture and traditions. Having thousands of islands inhabited by different kinds of ethnic groups, the country is indeed very rich of local customs and languages. Javanese is one of the local languages spoken by people living in Central Java and East Java. In daily life, Javanese people always use Javanese language to maintain their relationship. However, not all Javanese people are able to speak Javanese language appropriately.

The groups of people who are considered to be able to speak all Javanese speech levels well are usually older people. Young people at this time mostly can only speak a little bit of Javanese and more often mixing the language to Indonesia.
Richard (1985:40) says that code is term, which is used instead of language, speech, variety or dialect. In sociolinguistics, the use of languages such Javanese language and Indonesia language in a conversation is called code mixing. Javanese commonly interact each other by using language of more than one varieties of language. Sometimes, they use both languages and more in a conversation and we can find it in informal situation. In our society, the young generation often use more than one language. One way to know how the young generation use code mixing is through the conversation which occurs in Sei Bahar 1 village.
Sei Bahar 1 is the former village. It was filled by Javanese people since 1984. The majority of people who live there are come from central java. It is about 75 % of villager are come from central Java. However, there are some people who come from west Sumatra, Padang, south Sumatra, east java and west java. Because of the majority of villager are come from central java, it may influence the language used at there. Most people use Javanese with central java dialect as their language beside Indonesia language.
In recently time, young generation who is born in central java or who is born from parents whose come from central Java often mix their Javanese language to another language such as Indonesian. For instance: (A) sesuk koe nduwe gawean ora? (Do you have a job tomorrow?) (B) ora ene mas, emang ada apa mas?(nothing, what’s wrong?) (A) iki lo, besok antarkan mbak mu ke rumah sakit. Mbak mu demam mau (this is, drive your sister to hospital tomorrow, she get sicks) (B) ya mas.
From the example, it reveals that young Javanese mix one language to another. He or she starts their conversation by using Javanese language, but in the middle they change it to Indonesia language which might be influenced by some factors like background, education and setting (work, home). The people who use code mixing when they interact with community may also showing their social status. Nababan (1993:32) states that the use of code mixing in a speech sometimes shows his educational background or his social status.

Based on the facts and statement above, the researcher would like to examine “the Study of Code Mixing among Javanese People in Sei Bahar 1”

1.2. Limitation of the Problem
In this research, the researcher focus her study on code mixing between Indonesia language and Javanese language found in dialogue among Javanese people especially the young Javanese people. The rationale for choosing code mixing because it is particularly done by them in Sei Bahar 1, and the reason for choosing the young Javanese people at Sei Bahar 1 because the data reveals that the majority of young people in Sei Bahar are live at Unit 1.then, most of them are educated people who without no doubt have often activated the range of their speech repertoire involving Javanese and Indonesia.

1.3 Formulation of the Problem
In this study, the researcher formulates the problems as follows:
1. What are the forms of Code Mixing used by young Javanese people in Sei Bahar 1?
2. What are the communicative functions of code mixing among young Javanese people in Sei Bahar 1?

1.4 Purpose of the Research
The purposes of this study are formulated as follows:
1. To find the forms of code mixing used by young Javanese people in Sei Bahar 1.
2. To find the communicative functions of code mixing among young Javanese people in Sei Bahar 1.
1.5. The significance of the study

The contribution of the study would be as follows:
1. The writer hopes that the result of this study will give information and knowledge to the readers about code mixing
2. It is also useful for the lecturer to enrich their insight of sociolinguistics study to the students’ college.


CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


2.1 The code mixing
2.1.1. Definition of Code Mixing
Kachru (1978:28) proposes the use of the term code mixing as the use of one or more languages for consistent transfer of linguistic units from one language into another. He also identifies the three criteria of code mixing such as (1) the existence of a transfer of the units of code A into code B at inter sentential and intra sentential levels, (2) the existence of an “absorbing code” and an “absorbed code”, and (3) the transferred units that can be in the forms of morphemes, words, phrases, clauses, sentences and the so-called idiom.
Code mixing is mixing one language to another and only the change some of elements such as words and phrase in a sentence. Fasold (1984:180) states that pieces of one language are used while a speaker is basically using another language. The pieces taken from another language are often words, but they can also be phrase or larger units. Code mixing is usually happens in informal situation and mixing two languages or more languages in one situation. Furthermore, Wardhaugh (1986:104) states that conversational code mixing involves the deliberate mixing to language without and associated with topic change. It means that the speaker that used code mixing in their conversation is bilingual person.
Code mixing occurs when two people speak in one situation by using one language, but in the middle of the sentence they often use other language. For example, there are two people speak in one situation by using Javanese language, but in the middle of the sentence they often use Indonesia words in the sentence, not all of the sentence. For example: wah lek mampir jadi repot.

2.2 Social Factor
Holmes (1990:11-12) states that linguistics choices will generally reflect the influence of one or more than of the following components:
1. The participant: who is speaking and who they are speaking to?
(For example: Husband-wife, teenagers and children)
2. The setting or social context of the interaction: where they are speaking? (home, work, school)
3. The topic: what is being talked about?
4. The function: why they are speaking? What is the language being used for? Is the speaker asking a favour or giving order to someone? The aim of purpose of the interaction may be important.
All factor above influenced the people in using a variety and language choice. For the reason sometimes they use two or more language in their speaking. The use of language can be influenced by situation for whom, what language used, where and what are talking about. These social factors will influence people in choosing the work in their speaking.




2.3 The form of code mixing
Most the young Javanese people often mix their language in their dialogue. The writer found that there are some forms of words from Javanese language that are mixed into Indonesia language or English language. It could be word and phrase.

2.3.1. Word
Richard (1985:311) states that word is the smallest linguistics units, which occur on its own speech or writing. Word can be noun, verb, adjective and verb.
Noun
Richard (1985:196) states that noun is a word, which occurs as the subject or subject of a verb, or the object of a preposition that can be modified by an adjective can be used with determiners, for example from a noun skateboard, book, etc.
Verb
Crystal (1978:374) says that verb is a term used in the grammatical classification of words, to refer to a class. For example: write and read.
Adjective
Richard (1985:5) states that adjective is a word that describe the thing quality, state or action, which a noun refers to, or a word that describes a noun. For example from adjective is complain, feeling, pretty etc.




2.3.2. Phrase
Richard (1985:39) states that a phrase is a group of words, which form a grammatical unit. A phrase does not contain a finite verb and does not have a subject or predicate structure.

2.4. The communication functions of code mixing
Brown and Yule (1983:01) state that the people who exchange the code in their communication indicate that they activated the major codes (languages) or the minor codes (language varieties) at their command for the expression of transactional function interpersonal function. Transactional function means that code mixing is used for the kind of language that functions solely for the expression of the content. Such as (1) santai ae jo ngoyo (2) ojo kwatir, pestane rame trus meriah banget. Interpersonal function means that code mixing is used for the kind of language that functions for the expression of social relations and social attitudes holding between speakers, for instance: nasibmu ya pikirono dewe.
According to sack (1967:69) in communicative function there is a class of first pair parts which includes questions, greetings, challenges, requests, complains, invitation, announcement, for some first pairs part the second pair part is reciprocal (greeting-greeting), for some there is only one appropriate second (question-answer), for some more than one (complain-apology).
Recognizing the diversity of communicative functions that might be expressed and had awareness of the multiple means by which message can be expressed communication disabilities and to building a positive communication program for them (www.google.communication function program)
2.5. Some Javanese Value
Magnis-Suseno (1985:38) states that there are two basic rules which are influence in shaping the patterns of social communication in the Javanese community. They are the principle of Kerukunan (harmony) and hormat (respect). The former refers to the duty of each and every member of the community’s effort to maintain social harmony and the latter refers to the responsibility of all community members to show respect to others on every occasion in accordance with their social status and standing in the community.
Furthermore, there are others pattern which may often govern the Javanese people in conducting social intercourse. It is may called as maxim. Magnis-Suseno (1985:50) state that there are four maxims in Javanese, they are kurmat (respect), andhap asor (modesty), empan papan (place or position consciousness) and tepa-selira (empathy).
Kurmat means that one should show respect to others. In terms of linguistics behaviour, this maxim means “use language in such a way that the hearer knows that you respect him as he deserves to”. The sub-maxims would include: (1) do not use the language to the effect that the hearer’s face would be threatened and (2) choose a speech level in accordance with the hearer’s status and standing.
The phrase andhap asor comes from andhap (low) asor (lowly) which means that “behave as respectfully or as modestly as possible”. In terms of linguistics behaviour, it means “use language in such a way that the hearer knows that you are modest”. The sub-maxims would include: (1) maximise praise of others and minimise dispraise of others and (2) avoid using honorific for oneself.
Emphan-papan means that “be aware of your place or position”. In terms of linguistics behaviour means “use language in accordance with your place in the social ladder of the community and in accordance with the current situation”. The sub-maxims would be: (1) choose speech level in accordance with your social status in relation to the hearer’s and (2) structure your utterance and select your words by first considering factors such as who the addressee is, what your relationship with him is like, where the interaction take place, etc.
The phrase tepa-slira means that “don’t do unto others as you don’t want others to do unto you”. When it comes to the use of language, this maxim may means as : don’t use inappropriate language to you”. The sub-maxims would be: (1) use appropriate language as you want other people to use appropriate language to you, and (2) don’t use inappropriate language as you don’t want other people to use inappropriate language to you.









CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY


3.1. Research Design
Ary (1985:322) states that descriptive research is designed to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomenon. Based on this theory, the researcher uses the descriptive research design at her research. By means, in conducting the research, the researcher just to describe the young Javanese people speeches in their conversation. Furthermore, because descriptive also means that the research is not controlled or manipulated by certain kinds of behaviours in research place, so the data of this research are not controlled or manipulated by the researcher. It is real data from recording of the conversation among the young Javanese people.
This research used qualitative approach, in which the data is analyzed as it is, without any addition, without any treatment and without any statistical count. It is in accordance with Ary ( 1985:332) who states that the descriptive research has purpose to describe ‘what exist’ included a variable and a condition in a certain situation. Furthermore, it is supported by Aminudin (1990:16) who said that the descriptive qualitative research is based on the quality of the data without using some numbers to interpret the data of this research.



3.2. The Object of the Research
The object of this research was the young Javanese’ conversation when they conduct the conversation among of them. In detail, the young Javanese’ conversation that contain code mixing are taken as the data of the research. The sample of the research was young Javanese people, and the sample itself is taken purposively. It is conducted every single day until the researcher got all the samples. The duration for each data was flexible depending on how long conversation.

3.3. Instrument of Research
3.3.1. Researcher
Aminudin (1990:15) states that the researcher is considered as the key instrument of the research. Based on this statement, this research uses the researcher as her research instrument. It means that in conducting the research, she writes the research from beginning until the research finish. She arrange proposal of research, directly came to the research place to observe and collect the data, analyze the data, make research summary and then submit the result of research in the thesis form.

3.3.2. Tape Recorder
Tape recorder is also use as the research instrument. It is used to gain the existence of data. Through tape recorder, the conversations between young Javanese people in dialogue activity are recorded.
The reason for choosing tape recorder as one of her research instrument is because through the tape recorder the researcher weakness in thinking, remembering, or noting can be reduced, so the maximum data can be gathered for this research.
3.4. Technique of Data Collection
3.4.1. Observation
Wiersma (1986: 305) states that the observation is a way to collect the data in which an observer can measure and record what is occurring in some situation or setting. Thus, based on Wiersma statement, the researcher uses observation as her technique for collecting the data. The observation is used to find the form of code mixing in the conversation of young Javanese people.

3.4.2. Recording
The researcher records the conversation between young Javanese people. The recording processes are done secretly by the researcher and it is called as clandestine recording. By using the clandestine recording, the conversation of young Javanese people will appear naturally because they do not realize that their speeches are recorder at that time.

3.5. Technique of Analyzing the Data
Gay and Airasian (1992:229) state that technique of analyzing the data is used to identify the data. The data which will be used in this research are the young Javanese code mixing in certain period of time. The data that will be analyzed by the researcher as follows:
1. Transcribing
Longman (1987:1127) states that it means wrote down fully. It means that after the researcher does her recording to tape recorder, she transcribe the dialogue activities which contain code mixing. The paper which contains copy of conversation is called as transcript.
2. Analysing
The data will be analyzed after the researcher makes the transcription based on the recording. The researcher will analyze the forms of code mixing done by young Javanese people. She also will analyze the communicative function of code mixing that is done by young Javanese people.
3. Making Conclusion
The conclusion of this research is drawn after the researcher analyse the data.

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